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Key Performance Indicators : The 75 Measures Every Manager Needs to Know: Marr, Bernard: BOOKS KINOKUNIYA
Book Details
Key Performance Indicators : The 75 Measures Every Manager Needs to Know
Key Performance Indicators : The 75 Measures Every Manager Needs to Know
Publisher : Ft Pr
Published Date : 2012/06
Binding : Paperback
ISBN : 9780273750116

BookWeb Price : THB 1,743.00
Kinokuniya Privilege Card member price : THB 1,569.00

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Book Description
Source: ENG
Academic Descriptors: A48400300
Place of Publication: Great Britain
Continuations: Monograph Series,any number
Academic Level: Extracurricular
Review:
Choice Reviews 2013 January
Table of Contents
 
Introduction                                       xxv
Part One Financial perspective                     1  (82)
  1 Net Profit                                     3  (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               3  (1)
    How do I measure it?                           4  (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             4  (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      4  (3)
    Tips/warnings                                  7  (1)
    References                                     7  (2)
  2 Net profit margin                              9  (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               9  (1)
    How do I measure it?                           10 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             10 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      10 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  11 (1)
    References                                     11 (2)
  3 Gross profit margin                            13 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               13 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           14 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             14 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      14 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  15 (1)
    References                                     16 (1)
  4 Operating profit margin                        17 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               17 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           18 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             18 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      18 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  19 (1)
    References                                     19 (2)
  5 EBITDA                                         21 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               21 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           22 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             22 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      22 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  23 (1)
    References                                     24 (1)
  6 Revenue growth rate                            25 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               25 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           26 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             26 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      27 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  27 (1)
    References                                     28 (1)
  7 Total shareholder return (TSR)                 29 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               29 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           30 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             30 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      30 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  31 (1)
    References                                     31 (2)
  8 Economic value added (EVA)                     33 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               33 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           34 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             35 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      35 (2)
    Tips/warnings                                  37 (1)
    References                                     37 (2)
  9 Return on investment (ROI)                     39 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               39 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           40 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             41 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      41 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  42 (1)
    References                                     43 (2)
  10 Return on capital employed (ROCE)             45 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               45 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           46 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             46 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      46 (2)
    Tips/warnings                                  48 (1)
    References                                     48 (1)
  11 Return on assets (ROA)                        49 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               49 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           50 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             50 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      50 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  51 (1)
    References                                     51 (2)
  12 Return on equity (ROE)                        53 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               53 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           54 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             54 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      54 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  55 (1)
    References                                     55 (2)
  13 Debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio                    57 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               57 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           58 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             58 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      59 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  60 (1)
    References                                     60 (1)
  14 Cash conversion cycle (CCC)                   61 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               61 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           62 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             63 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      63 (2)
    Tips/warnings                                  65 (1)
    References                                     65 (2)
  15 Working capital ratio                         67 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               67 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           68 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             69 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      69 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  70 (1)
    References                                     70 (1)
  16 Operating expense ratio (OER)                 71 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               71 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           72 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             72 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      72 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  73 (1)
    References                                     73 (2)
  17 CAPEX to sales ratio                          75 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               75 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           76 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             76 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      76 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  77 (1)
    References                                     77 (2)
  18 Price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio)              79 (4)
    Why is this indicator important?               79 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           80 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             80 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      80 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  81 (1)
    References                                     81 (2)
Part Two Customer perspective                      83 (44)
  19 Net promoter score (NPS)                      85 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               85 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           86 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             87 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      87 (2)
    Tips/warnings                                  89 (1)
    References                                     89 (2)
  20 Customer retention rate                       91 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               91 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           92 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             93 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      93 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  94 (1)
    References                                     95 (2)
  21 Customer satisfaction index                   97 (6)
    Why is this indicator important?               97 (1)
    How do I measure it?                           98 (1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             99 (1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      99 (1)
    Tips/warnings                                  100(1)
    References                                     101(2)
  22 Customer profitability score                  103(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               103(1)
    How do I measure it?                           104(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             105(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      105(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  106(1)
    References                                     106(1)
  23 Customer lifetime value                       107(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               107(1)
    How do I measure it?                           108(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             109(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      110(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  110(1)
    References                                     111(2)
  24 Customer turnover rate                        113(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               113(1)
    How do I measure it?                           114(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             115(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      116(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  116(1)
    References                                     116(1)
  25 Customer engagement                           117(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               117(1)
    How do I measure it?                           118(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             119(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      119(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  120(1)
    References                                     120(1)
  26 Customer complaints                           121(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               121(1)
    How do I measure it?                           122(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             123(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      123(2)
    Tips/warnings                                  125(1)
    References                                     125(2)
Part Three marketing and sales perspective         127(52)
  27 Market growth rate                            129(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               129(1)
    How do I measure it?                           130(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             130(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      130(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  131(1)
    References                                     131(2)
  28 Relative market share                         133(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               133(1)
    How do I measure it?                           134(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             135(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      135(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  136(1)
    References                                     137(2)
  29 Brand equity                                  139(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               139(1)
    How do I measure it?                           140(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             141(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      141(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  142(1)
    References                                     142(1)
  30 Cost per lead                                 143(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               143(1)
    How do I measure it?                           144(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             144(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      144(2)
    Tips/warnings                                  146(1)
    References                                     146(1)
  31 Conversion rate                               147(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               147(1)
    How do I measure it?                           148(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             149(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      149(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  150(1)
    References                                     150(1)
  32 Search engine rankings (by keyword) and       151(4)
  click-through rate
    Why is this indicator important?               151(1)
    How do I measure it?                           152(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             152(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      152(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  153(1)
    References                                     153(2)
  33 Page views and bounce rates                   155(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               155(1)
    How do I measure it?                           156(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             157(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      157(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  158(1)
    References                                     158(1)
  34 Customer online engagement level              159(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               159(1)
    How do I measure it?                           160(2)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             162(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      162(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  163(1)
    References                                     163(2)
  35 Online share of voice (OSOV)                  165(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               165(1)
    How do I measure it?                           166(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             166(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      167(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  168(1)
    References                                     168(1)
  36 Social Networking Footprint                   169(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               169(1)
    How do I measure it?                           170(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             171(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      171(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  172(1)
    References                                     173(2)
  37 Klout score                                   175(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               175(1)
    How do I measure it?                           176(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             176(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      176(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  177(1)
    References                                     177(2)
Part Four Operational processes and supply         179(76)
chain perspective
  38 Six Sigma Level                               181(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               181(1)
    How do I measure it?                           182(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             183(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      183(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  184(1)
    References                                     184(1)
  39 Capacity utilisation rate (CUR)               185(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               185(1)
    How do I measure it?                           186(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             186(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      187(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  187(1)
    References                                     187(2)
  40 Process waste level                           189(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               189(1)
    How do I measure it?                           190(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             191(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      192(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  192(1)
    References                                     192(1)
  41 Order fulfilment cycle time (OFCT)            193(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               193(1)
    How do I measure it?                           194(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             194(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      194(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  195(1)
    References                                     195(2)
  42 Delivery in full, on time (DIFOT) rate        197(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               197(1)
    How do I measure it?                           198(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             198(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      199(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  200(1)
    References                                     200(1)
  43 Inventory shrinkage rate (ISR)                201(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               201(1)
    How do I measure it?                           202(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             202(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      202(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  203(1)
    References                                     203(2)
  44 Project schedule variance (PSV)               205(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               205(1)
    How do I measure it?                           206(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             207(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      207(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  207(1)
    References                                     208(1)
  45 Project cost variance (PCV)                   209(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               209(1)
    How do I measure it?                           210(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             210(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      211(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  211(1)
    References                                     211(2)
  46 Earned value (EV) metric                      213(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               213(1)
    How do I measure it?                           214(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             214(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      214(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  215(1)
    References                                     216(1)
  47 Innovation pipeline strenght (IPS)            217(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               217(1)
    How do I measure it?                           218(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             218(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      218(2)
    Tips/warnings                                  220(1)
    References                                     220(1)
  48 Return on innovation investment (ROIイ)        221(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               221(1)
    How do I measure it?                           222(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             222(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      223(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  223(1)
    References                                     223(2)
  49 Time to market                                225(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               225(1)
    How do I measure it?                           226(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             227(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      227(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  228(1)
    References                                     228(1)
  50 First pass yield (FPY)                        229(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               229(1)
    How do I measure it?                           230(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             230(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      231(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  231(1)
    References                                     232(1)
  51 Rework level                                  233(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               233(1)
    How do I measure it?                           234(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             235(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      235(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  236(1)
    References                                     236(1)
  52 Quality index                                 237(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               237(1)
    How do I measure it?                           238(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             239(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      239(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  239(1)
    References                                     240(1)
  53 Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)         241(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               241(1)
    How do I measure it?                           242(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             242(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      243(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  244(1)
    References                                     245(2)
  54 Process or machine downtime level             247(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               247(1)
    How do I measure it?                           248(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             248(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      249(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  249(1)
    References                                     249(2)
  55 First contact resolution (FCR)                251(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               251(1)
    How do I measure it?                           252(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             253(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      253(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  254(1)
    References                                     254(1)
Part Five Employee perspective                     255(54)
  56 Human capital value added (HCVA)              257(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               257(1)
    How do I measure it?                           258(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             258(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      258(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  259(1)
    References                                     259(2)
  57 Revenue per employee (RPE)                    261(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               261(1)
    How do I measure it?                           262(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             262(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      262(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  263(1)
    References                                     264(1)
  58 Employee satisfaction index                   265(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               265(1)
    How do I measure it?                           266(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             267(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      267(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  268(1)
    References                                     268(1)
  59 Employee engagement level                     269(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               269(1)
    How do I measure it?                           270(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             271(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      271(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  272(1)
    References                                     272(1)
  60 Staff advocacy score                          273(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               273(1)
    How do I measure it?                           274(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             275(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      275(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  276(1)
    References                                     276(1)
  61 Employee churn rate                           277(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               277(1)
    How do I measure it?                           278(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             278(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      278(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  279(1)
    References                                     280(1)
  62 Average employee tenure                       281(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               281(1)
    How do I measure it?                           282(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             282(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      282(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  283(1)
    References                                     284(1)
  63 Absenteeism Bradford factor                   285(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               285(1)
    How do I measure it?                           286(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             287(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      287(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  288(1)
    References                                     288(1)
  64 360-degree feedback score                     289(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               289(1)
    How do I measure it?                           290(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             291(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      291(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  292(1)
    References                                     293(2)
  65 Salary competitiveness ratio (SCR)            295(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               295(1)
    How do I measure it?                           296(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             297(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      297(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  297(1)
    References                                     298(1)
  66 Time to hire                                  299(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               299(1)
    How do I measure it?                           300(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             300(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      300(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  301(1)
    References                                     301(2)
  67 Training return on investment                 303(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               303(1)
    How do I measure it?                           304(2)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             306(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      306(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  307(1)
    References                                     307(2)
Part Six Corporate social responsibility           309(35)
perspective
  68 Carbon footprint                              311(6)
    Why is this indicator important?               311(1)
    How do I measure it?                           312(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             313(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      313(2)
    Tips/warnings                                  315(1)
    References                                     315(2)
  69 Water footprint                               317(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               317(1)
    How do I measure it?                           318(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             319(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      319(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  320(1)
    References                                     320(1)
  70 Energy consumption                            321(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               321(1)
    How do I measure it?                           322(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             322(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      322(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  323(1)
    References                                     323(2)
  71 Savings levels due to conservation and        325(4)
  improvement efforts
    Why is this indicator important?               325(1)
    How do I measure it?                           326(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             326(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      326(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  327(1)
    References                                     327(2)
  72 Supply chain miles                            329(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               329(1)
    How do I measure it?                           330(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             330(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      330(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  331(1)
    References                                     331(2)
  73 Waste reduction rate                          333(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               333(1)
    How do I measure it?                           334(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             335(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      335(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  335(1)
    References                                     336(1)
  74 Waste recycling rate                          337(4)
    Why is this indicator important?               337(1)
    How do I measure it?                           338(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             338(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      338(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  339(1)
    References                                     339(2)
  75 Product recycling rate                        341(3)
    Why is this indicator important?               341(1)
    How do I measure it?                           342(1)
    Cost/effort in collecting the data             342(1)
    Target setting/benchmarks                      342(1)
    Tips/warnings                                  343(1)
    References                                     343(1)
Index                                              344
 

By identifying and describing the most powerful financial and non-financial KPIs, this book will make life easier for you by defining them, explaining how and when they should be used and providing a rich library of KPIs that have been proven to significantly improve performance. The book presents case examples to illustrate the selection and use of the KPIs and provides tools such as KPI selection templates and Key Performance Questions to help you apply the most appropriate KPIs effectively in your business.

Contents
Contents Introduction PART ONE Financial perspective 1 Net profit 2 Net profit margin 3 Gross profit margin 4 Operating profit margin 5 EBITDA 6 Revenue growth rate 7 Total shareholder return (TSR) 8 Economic value added (EVA) 9 Return on investment (ROI) 10 Return on capital employed (ROCE) 11 Return on assets (ROA) 12 Return on equity (ROE) 13 Debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio 14 Cash conversion cycle (CCC) 15 Working capital ratio 16 Operating expense ratio (OER) 17 CAPEX to sales ratio 18 Price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio) PART TWO Customer perspective 19 Net promoter score (NPS) 20 Customer retention rate 21 Customer satisfaction index 22 Customer profitability score 23 Customer lifetime value 24 Customer turnover rate 25 Customer engagement 26 Customer complaints PART THREE Marketing and sales perspective 27 Market growth rate 28 Relative market share 29 Brand equity 30 Cost per lead 31 Conversion rate 32 Search engine rankings (by keyword) and click-through rate 33 Page views and bounce rates 34 Customer online engagement level 35 Online share of voice (OSOV) 36 Social networking footprint 37 Klout score PART FOUR Operational processes and supply chain perspective 38 Six Sigma level 39 Capacity utilisation rate (CUR) 40 Process waste level 41 Order fulfilment cycle time (OFCT) 42 Delivery in full, on time (DIFOT) rate 43 Inventory shrinkage rate (ISR) 44 Project schedule variance (PSV) 45 Project cost variance (PCV) 46 Earned value (EV) metric 47 Innovation pipeline strength (IPS) 48 Return on innovation investment (ROI2) 49 Time to market 50 First pass yield (FPY) 51 Rework level 52 Quality index 53 Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) 54 Process or machine downtime level 55 First contact resolution (FCR) PART FIVE Employee perspective 56 Human capital value added (HCVA) 57 Revenue per employee (RPE) 58 Employee satisfaction index 59 Employee engagement level 60 Staff advocacy score 61 Employee churn rate 62 Average employee tenure 63 Absenteeism Bradford factor 64 360-degree feedback score 65 Salary competitiveness ratio (SCR) 66 Time to hire 67 Training return on investment PART SIX Corporate social responsibility perspective 68 Carbon footprint 69 Water footprint 70 Energy consumption 71 Savings levels due to conservation and improvement efforts 72 Supply chain miles 73 Waste reduction rate 74 Waste recycling rate 75 Product recycling rate