Communication about 'the environment' in and through a broad array of news, advertising, art and entertainment media is one of the major sources of public and political understanding of definitions, issues and problems associated with the environment. Environment, Media and Communication examines the social, cultural and political roles of the media as a public arena for images, representations, definitions and controversy regarding the environment. The book starts by discussing and outlining a framework for analyzing media and communication roles in the emergence of the environment and environmental problems as issues for public and political concern. It proceeds to examine who and what drives the public agenda on environmental issues, addressing questions about how governments, scientists, experts, pressure groups and other stakeholders have sought to use traditional as well as newer media for promoting their definitions of the key issues.The media are not merely an open public arena or stage, but rather themselves a key gate-keeper and influence in the process of communicating about the environment: the role of news values, organizational arrangements and professional practices, are thus examined next. Recognizing the importance of wider popular culture narratives to public understanding and communication about the environment and nature, the book proceeds with a discussion of the messages and moral tales communicated about the environment, science and nature in a range of media, including film and advertising media. It shows how this wider context provides important clues to understanding the successes and failures of selected environmental issues or campaigns. The book finishes with an examination of the key approaches and models used for understanding how the media influence and interact with public opinion and political decision-making on environmental issues.Offering a comprehensive introduction to theoretical approaches and models for the study of media and communication roles regarding the environment, and drawing on empirical research evidence and examples from Europe, America, Australia and Asia, the book will be of interest to students in media/communication studies, geography, environmental studies, political science and sociology as wll as to environmental professionals and activists.Contents
1. Introduction 2. Communication and the Construction of Environmental Issues 3. Making Claims and Managing News About The Environment 4. The Environment as News: News Values, News Media and Journalistic Practices 5. Popular Culture, Nature and Environmental Issues 6. Selling 'Nature/The Natural': Advertising, Nature, National Identity, Nostalgia and the Environmental Image 7. Media, Publics, Politics and Environmental IssuesUniversity, France) 7. The Portuguese Empire (1825-1890): Ideology and Economics - Valentim Alexandre, Lisbon University, Portugal 8. The Scramble for Africa: icon and idiom of modernity - Albert Wirz, Humboldt University, Berlin and Andreas Eckert, Hamburg University, Germany Part Three: France: From a Civilising Mission to the Highest Form of Mercantilism? 9. Cultural Systems of Representations, Economic Interests and French Penetration into Black Africa 1780s-1880s Olivier Petre-Grenouilleau, Lorient University and the Institut Universitaire de France, Paris 10. The Place and Role of the Players in Colonial Expansion: France and East Africa in the Nineteenth Century - Valerie Valey, Lorient University 11. Commercial Presence, Colonial Penetration: Traders of Marseilles in West Africa in the Nineteenth Century - Xavier Daumalin, Aix-Marseille University, France50. Aging and inner ear dysfunction. 51. Smell and taste. Section XII: Skin and Hair. 52. Healthy skin aging. 53. Skin disease caused by changes in the immune system and infection. 54. Skin changes caused by venous diseases. 55. Aging of hair. 56. Hormone treatment and preventative strategies in aging men: whom to treat, when to treat and how to treat.WITH THE LIVING AND THE DEAD Allen C. Smith and Sherryl Kleinman Emotions, Economics and Consumer Culture 34. THE ROMANTIC ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF MODERN CONSUMERISM Colin Campbell 35. A THEORY OF SHOPPING Danny Miller 36. INVESTING IN EMOTION Daniel Lefkowitz 37. EMOTIONS AND ECONOMIC THEORY Jon Elster Emotions and the Media 38. THE AUDIENCE AND MEDIA REPORTING OF HUMAN SUFFERING Birgitte Hoijer 39. CHAV MUM CHAV SCUM Imogen Tyler 40. TALKING ALONE Minna Aslama and Mervi Pantti 41. THE MOOD CUE APPROACH Greg M. Smith Part 4: Affect, Power and Justice Emotions and Politics 42. THE EMOTIONAL DEFICIT IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION Barry Richards 43. PRIDE POLITICS AND MULTICULTURALIST CITIZENSHIP Anne-marie Fortier 44. A MUSEUM OF HOPE: A STORY OF ROBBEN ISLAND Clifford Shearing and Michael Kempa 45. AMBIVALENCE AND THE EMERGENCE OF MILITANT AIDS ACTIVISM Deborah Gould Emotions and Law 46. SENSITIVE NEW AGE LAWS Kathy Laster and Pat O'Malley 47. THE EMOTIONAL DIMENSION IN LEGAL REGULATION Bettina Lange 48. AFFECTIVE VERSUS EFFECTIVE JUSTICE Arie Freiberg 49. MAKE-BELIEVE PAPERS, LEGAL FORMS AND THE COUNTERFEIT Yael Navaro-Yashin 50. EMOTIONS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Susanne Karstedt Compassion, Hate, and Terror 51. A LEXICON OF TERROR Marguerite Feitlowitz 52. COMPASSION (AND WITHHOLDING) Lauren Berlant 53. VIOLENCE, MOURNING, POLITICS Judith Budler 54. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION Elaine Hatfield and Richard L. Rapson 55. THE COMPASSIONATE TEMPERAMENT Nathan Sznaider Guide to further reading Name index Subject indexMonitoring Sites Monitoring Frequency Parameters for Monitoring - Predictive Parameters Parameters for Monitoring - Identity and Number of Cyanobacterial Cells Sampling Cell Counting, Measurement, and Chlorophyll-a Analysis Chlorophyll-a Analysis Fluorescence Measurement of Cyanobacterial Concentration in Reservoirs Monitoring by Genetic Methods References DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF CYLINDROSPERMOPSINS AND MICROCYSTINS Toxin Concentration In Vivo Rodent Toxicity Assays Cylindrospermopsin Bioassay and Analysis Cell-Based and Cell-Free Toxicity Measurement of Cylindrospermopsin ELISA of Cylindrospermopsin Instrument-Based Techniques for Cylindrospermopsin High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Microcystins and Nodularins: Bioassay and Analysis Sample Collection and Handling for Microcystins Bioassays for Microcystins and Nodularins ELISA for Microcystins and Nodularins Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Microcystins and Nodularins HPLC for Microcystins and Nodularins Microcystins and Nodularins in Tissue Samples Analytical Problems and Challenges References PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND REMEDIATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS IN RESERVOIRS Nutrient Reduction Phosphorus Reduction Catchment Management Nitrogen Reduction Reservoir Remediation Destratification Flow Phosphorus Precipitation, Sediment Capping, and Dredging Algicides Biological Remediation References WATER TREATMENT Processes for Removing Cyanobacterial Toxins from Drinking Water Supplies Water Filtration, Coagulation, and Clarification Activated Carbon Ozonation and Chlorination Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis Slow Sand Filtration Membrane Filtration Conclusions References EMERGING ISSUES Ecological Issues Health Issues Water Treatment References INDEXHill, N.C. 1985 Documentary Publications) pp. 45-97. 41. Thomas Perry Thornton, 'Terror as a Weapon of Political Agitation', in Harry Eckstein (ed.), Internal War; Problems and Approaches, (New York:1964, Free Press) pp. 71-99. 42. Kent Layne Oots, 'Organizational Perspectives on the Formation and Disintegration of Terrorist Groups', Terrorism (12), pp. 139-152 43. J. Bowyer Bell, 'Revolutionary Dynamics: The Inherent Inefficiency of the Underground', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence 2:2 (Summer 90) pp. 193-211 44. James Adams, 'Profit and Loss', The Financing of Terror (New York: 1986 Simon and Schuster) pp. 237-52. 45. Martha Crenshaw, 'How Terrorism Declines', in Clark McCauley (ed.), Terrorism Research and Public Policy, (London: Frank Cass, 1991) pp. 69-87. 46. Christopher Hewitt, 'Terrorism and Public Opinion: A Five Country Comparison' Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence 2:2 (Summer 1990), pp. 145-70. 47. Ehud Sprinzak, 'The Process of Delegitimation: Towards A Linkage Theory of Political Terrorism', Clark McCauley (ed.), Terrorism and Public Policy (London: Frank Cass, 1991), pp. 50-68. B: Counter-Terrorism 48. Martha Crenshaw, 'Counterterrorism Policy and the Political Process', Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, (2001) 24, pp. 329-37. 49. Gary T. Marx, 'Thoughts on a Neglected Category of Social Movement Participant: The Agent Provocateur and the Informant', American Journal of Sociology, 80:2, pp. 402-442. 50. Abraham H. Miller, 'Preserving Liberty in a Society under Siege: The Media and the "Guildford Four" ', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence, 3:3 (Fall 1990), pp. 305-323 51. Ronald D. Crelinsten and Alex P. Schmid, 'Western Responses to Terrorism: A Twenty-Five Years Balance Sheet', in Alex P. Schmid and Ronald D. Crelinsten (eds.), Western Responses to Terrorism, (London: Frank Cass, 1993), pp. 307-40 C: Special Problems 52. Ariel Merari, 'Attacks on Civil Aviation: Trends and Lessons', in Paul Wilkinson and Brian M. Jenkins (eds), Aviation Terrorism and Security, (London: Frank Cass, 1999) pp. 9-26. 53. Eubank William Lee and Leonard Weinberg, 'Does Democracy Encourage Terrorism?' with Comments: Abraham Miller, Christopher Hewitt, and Response: Eubank andWeinberg Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence 6:4 (Winter 1994), pp. 417-43. D: Organizations and Case Studies 54. Fernando Lopez-Alves, 'Political Crises, Strategic Choices and Terrorism: The Rise and Fall of the Uruguayan Tupamaros', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence I:2 (April 1989), pp. 202-41. 55. Alison Jamieson, 'Identity and Morality in the Italian Red Brigades', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence, 2: 4, (Winter 1990), pp. 508-20. 56. Weather Underground 'Prairie Fire--Political Statement of the Weather Underground, 1974', The Terrorism Reader Walter Laqueur and Yonah Alexander (ed.), (New York: 1987 NAL Penguin) revised edition pp. 173-76 57. Bommi Baumann, 'The Last Phase', Terror or Love? (New York: Pulp Press, 1997) pp. 104-14. 58. Robert W. White and Terry Falkenberg White, 'Revolution in the City: On the Resources of the Urban Guerrilla', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence, 3: 4 (Winter 1991), pp. 100-33. 59. Dennis A. Pluchinsky, 'Middle Eastern Terrorism in Europe: Trends and Prospects' Terrorism, 14,pp. 67-76 60. The Palestine National Charter: Resolutions of the Palestine National Council July 1-17, 1968 Modified by Letter September 9, 1993 by Yassir Arafat to Prime Minster Rabin in Basic Political Documents of the Armed Palestinian Resistance Movement: Leila Kadi, Palestine Research Centre, Beirut, December 1969 61. Abu Iyad with Eric Rouleau, 'The Tidal Wave' and 'Epilogue: Taking Stock', My Home, My Land (New York: Times Books, 1981) pp. 29-49 and 219-226. 62. Tamar Pratt, 'Palestinian Armed Struggle: Strategy and Tactics', in Anat Kurz (ed.), Contemporary Trends in World Terrorism (New York: Praeger, 1987), pp. 24-31. Volume 4: The Fourth of Religious Wave A. General Context 63.David C. Rapoport, 'Modern Terror: The Four Waves' in Audrey Cronin and J. Ludes eds. Attacking Terrorism:Elements of a Grand Strategy (Washington,D.C: 2004 Georgetown Univ. Press) pp. 46-73 64. Khachig Tololyan, 'Cultural Narrative and the Motivation of the Terrorist' in David C. Rapoport, ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations (London: Frank Cass, 1988) pp. 217-233 65. Martha Crenshaw 'Why is America the Primary Target? Terrorism as globalized civil war', in Charles W. Kegley Jr. Ed, The New Global Terrorism (Prentice Hall: 2003) pp 160-172 66. Gilles Kepel 'Introduction' in Jihad:The Trail of Political Islam (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002) pp.1-20 67. Gary Sick 'Taking Vows: The Domestication of Policy Making in Hostage Incidents', in Walter Reich, ed., Origins of Terrorist Psychologies, Ideologies, States of Mind (Cambridge: University Press, 1990) pp. 23-46 68. Alex Schmidt, 'Terrorism and the Media' B. New Tactics 69. David Cook, 'Suicide Attacks or 'Martyrdom Operations' and Contemporary Jihad Literature' Nova Religio 6/1.pp. 7-44 (edited) 70. Robert Pape, 'The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism', APSR 97(3), 2003, pp.323-61 71. Mia Bloom 'Palestinian Suicide Bombing: Public Support, Market Share and Outbidding' Political Science Quarterly 119/1 2004, pp. 61-88 72. Ian Reader, 'Spectres and Shadows: Aum Shinrikyo and the Road to Megiddo' in Jeffrey Kaplan, Millennial Violence Past, Present, and Future (London: Frank Cass 2002) pp. 150-86 73. Jeffery Kaplan, 'Leaderless Resistance' Journal of Terrorism and Political Science, 9/3 1997 pp.80-95 74. Jeffrey D. Simon, 'Lone Operators and Weapons of Mass Destruction' in Brad Roberts, ed., Hype or Reality: The New Terrorism and Mass Casualty Attacks, (Alexandra, VA: The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2000) pp. 69-81 C. Al Qaeda 75. Osama bin Laden; Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places (1996) www.pbs.org/irp/world/para/docs/international/fatwa._1996.html 76. Osama bin Laden, 'Jihad against Jews and Crusaders', www.fas.org.irp/world/para/docs/980223.fatwa.htm, 23rd February 1998 77. Rohan Gunaratna, 'The Al Qaeda Threat and the International Response' in Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), pp. 221-261 78. Marc Sageman 'Joining the Jihad' in Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004) pp.99-135 79. 'We Have Planes' 9/11 Commission Report, (New York: 2004, W.W. Norton ) 1-26 80. Andrew Tan, 'Southeast Asia as a 'Second Front' in the War Against Terrorism: Evaluating the Threat and Responses', Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence 5,2 2003 pp. 112-38 D. COUNTER-TERRORISM AFTER 9/11 81. Richard Clarke, 'Stumbling into the Islamic World', in Against All Enemies (New York: Free Press, 2004) pp 35-55 82. Lord Butler Report, 'Nature and Use of Intelligence' and 'Terrorism' Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction. (London: Stationery Office, 2004) pp. 7-16 and pp. 29-36 83.Adam Roberts, 'Laws of War' in Audrey Cronin and James Ludes, eds., Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy, (Georgetown, University Press, 2004) pp. 186-218 84. Michael Barkun, 'Defending Against The Apocalypse: The Limits of Homeland Security'