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Psychiatry (2ND): Cutler, Janis L., M.D./ Marcus, Eric R.: BOOKS KINOKUNIYA
Book Details
Psychiatry (2ND)
Psychiatry (2ND)
Publisher : Oxford Univ Pr
Published Date : 2010/04
Binding : Paperback
ISBN : 9780195372748

BookWeb Price : AED 215.00

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Language : English
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Book Description
Source: ENG
Academic Descriptors: A67010000
Place of Publication: United States
Edition: Subsequent
Textual Format: Textbooks,Lower Level
Academic Level: Graduate
Table of Contents
 
CONTRIBUTORS                                       xxv
1. PSYCHIATRIC ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT PLANNING   1
  Janis L. Cutler
    Chief Complaint                                2
    History                                        3
      History of the Present Illness               3
      Past Psychiatric History                     6
      Past Medical History                         6
      Review of Systems                            6
      Psychosocial History                         7
      Family History                               8
    Mental Status Examination                      8
    Other Findings                                 10
      Physical Examination                         10
      Laboratory Tests                             18
    Impressions                                    18
      Case Summary                                 18
      Differential Diagnosis                       19
      Multiaxial Evaluation                        19
      Predisposing and Precipitating Factors       21
    Treatment Plan                                 21
    Prognosis                                      21
2. THE PSYCHIATRIC INTERVIEW                       23
  Lyle Rosnick
    Interview Models                               23
      The Medical Model                            23
      The Psychodynamic Model                      24
        Object Relations Theory                    24
        Ego Psychology                             26
        Psychosexual Development                   26
        Defense Mechanisms                         27
        Transference and Resistance                29
    Conducting the Interview                       29
      Scheduling the Interview                     30
      The Interview Setting                        30
      Safety                                       30
      Language                                     30
      Beginning the Interview                      31
      Chief Complaint and History of the           32
      Present Illness
      Past Psychiatric History                     33
      Past Medical History                         33
      Review of Major Realms of Psychopathology    34
        General Screening Questions                34
        Mood Disorders                             35
        Depression and Dysthymia                   35
        Mania and Hypomania                        36
        Suicide                                    37
        Anxiety Disorders                          37
        Generalized Anxiety                        37
        Panic Attack or Disorder                   37
        Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder              38
        Phobias                                    38
        Substance-related Disorders                38
        Cognitive Disorders                        39
        Psychosis                                  40
        Eating Disorders                           40
        Personality and Personality Disorders      41
      Psychosocial History                         42
      Family History                               46
      Mental Status Examination                    46
    Sample Interviews                              46
      Interview One                                46
      Interview Two                                48
      Interview Three                              49
      Discussion                                   50
    Concluding the Interview                       50
3. MOOD DISORDERS                                  53
  Leo Sher, David A. Kahn, and Maria A. Oquendo
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               53
      Major Depression                             55
        Psychological Symptoms and Signs           55
        Behavioral Symptoms and Signs              57
        Subtypes                                   59
        Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors            61
      Dysthymic Disorder                           61
      Bipolar Disorder                             61
      Mania                                        64
        Mania with Psychosis                       67
        Rapid-cycling Subtype                      67
      Mixed States                                 68
      Hypomania                                    68
      Cyclothymia                                  69
      Geriatric Issues                             69
      Catatonia                                    70
    Epidemiology and Course of Illness             70
        Major Depression                           72
        Bipolar Disorder                           73
    The Interview                                  74
      Depressive Disorders                         74
      Bipolar Disorder                             76
    Differential Diagnosis                         79
    Medical Evaluation                             82
    Etiology                                       83
      Neurobiological Theories                     83
        Neurotransmitter Hypotheses                83
        Neuroendoaine Hypotheses                   84
        Chronobiological Theories                  85
        Sensitization and Kindling Theory          85
        Genetic Factors                            86
      Psychosocial Theories                        87
        Psychoanalytic Theory                      87
        Interpersonal Theory                       88
        Cognitive Theory                           89
    Treatment                                      89
      Pharmacotherapy                              90
        Antidepressant Agents                      90
        Adjunctive Drugs                           91
        Treatment of Bipolar Depression            91
        Lithium and Other Mood-stabilizing Drugs   92
        Preventive Pharmacotherapy                 93
      Electroconvulsive Therapy                    94
      Psychotherapy                                94
        Cognitive Therapy                          94
        Interpersonal Psychotherapy                95
        Psychodynamic Psychotherapy                96
        Long-term Psychotherapy and Preventive     96
        Treatment
        Psychotherapy in Combination with          96
        Pharmacotherapy
        Bipolar Disorder                           98
4. SC.HIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS    101
  Thomas Smith, Ewald Horvath, and Francine
  Cournos
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               101
      Symptoms of Schizophrenia                    103
        Positive Symptoms                          103
        Negative Symptoms                          106
        Disorganized Symptoms                      107
      Subtypes of Schizophrenia                    108
      Other Psychotic Disorders                    108
        Schizophreniform Disorder                  108
        Schizoaffedive Disorder                    109
        Delusional Disorder                        109
        Brief Psychotic Disorder                   109
        Psychotic Disorder Due to a General        109
        Medical Condition
        Substance-induced Psychotic Disorder       110
      Course of Illness                            110
    The Interview                                  112
    Differential Diagnosis                         114
    Medical Evaluation                             116
    Etiology                                       117
      Neurobiology                                 117
        Genetic Factors                            117
        Neurochemical Factors                      118
        Neurodevelopmental Factors                 119
      Seasonal Birth Patterns                      120
      Psychosocial Factors                         120
    Treatment                                      120
      Pharmacotherapy                              121
        First-generation Antipsychotic             121
        Medications
        Second-generation Antipsychotic            121
        Medications
        Side Effects of Antipsychotic              122
        Medications
        Pharmacotherapy for Acute Episodes         124
        Pharmacotherapy for Other Psychotic        125
        Disorders
        Treatment Adherence                        125
      Treatment of Prodromal Schizophrenia         125
      Psychosocial Treatment                       126
        Individual Psychotherapy                   126
        Group Therapy                              127
        Family Therapy                             127
        Psychoeducation                            127
        Peer Support and Self-help Groups          127
        Vocational Support Programs                127
    Therapeutic Settings                           128
      Institutional and Residential Care           128
        Hospital Treatment                         128
        Community Residences                       129
      Day Programs and Rehabilitative Programs     129
      Psychosocial Clubs                           129
      Assertive Community Treatment                129
      Crisis Intervention, Emergency Services,     130
      Outreach Services, Case Management, and
      Commitment
      Barriers to the Care of People with          130
      Schizophrenia
        Stigma                                     130
        Substance Use Comorbidity                  130
        Jails and Prisons                          131
5. COGNITIVE DISORDERS AND MENTAL DISORDERS DUE    132
TO GENERAL MEDICAL CONDITIONS
  Jennifer M. Rucci and Robert E. Feinstein
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               132
      Cognitive Disorders                          132
        Delirium                                   132
        Course                                     135
        Dementia                                   136
        Course                                     137
        Amnestic Disorder                          138
        Course                                     139
      Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical    139
      Condition
        Psychotic Disorders Due to a General       139
        Medical Condition
        Mood Disorders Due to a General Medical    140
        Condition
        Anxiety Disorders Due to a General         140
        Medical Condition
        Personality Change Due to a General        141
        Medical Condition
        Course                                     142
    The Interview                                  142
      Interview Setting                            143
      Interview Questions                          143
      Therapeutic Interventions                    144
      Family Interview                             144
    Differential Diagnosis                         145
      Special Areas of Concern in Differential     147
      Diagnosis
    Medical Evaluation                             149
      Neurological Review of Systems               149
      Physical Examination                         149
      Neurological Examination                     150
      Laboratory Tests                             150
      Neuroimaging                                 150
      Electroencephalogram                         150
      Sleep Studies                                151
      Mental Status Testing and Neurobehavioral    151
      Assessment
    Etiology                                       157
      Cognitive Disorders                          157
        Delirium                                   157
        Dementia                                   157
        Alzheimer Disease                          157
        Vascular Dementia                          158
        Parkinson Disease and Lewy Body Dementia   158
        Frontal Temporal Dementia                  158
        Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection     158
        Huntington Disease                         159
        Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus              159
        Cradzfeldt-Jakob Disease                   159
      Amnestic Disorder                            159
      Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical    159
      Condition
        Psychotic Disorders Due to a General       159
        Medical Condition
        Mood Disorders Due to a General Medical    160
        Condition
        Anxiety Disorders Due to a General         161
        Medical Condition
        Personality Changes Due to a General       162
        Medical Condition
    Treatment                                      162
      Psychotherapy                                162
        Behavior Therapy                           162
        Operant-behavioral Treatment               163
        Social Learning                            163
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 163
        Family Therapy                             163
        Psychoeducation                            163
        Structural Family Therapy                  164
        Strategic Family Therapy                   165
      Pharmacotherapy                              166
        Cognitive Enhancers                        166
        Antidepressants                            166
        Antipsychotics                             167
        Anxiolytics                                167
        Lithium                                    167
      Anticonvulsants                              168
      Preventive Measures                          168
6. ANXIETY DISORDERS                               170
  Franklin R. Schneier, Hilary B. Vidair,
  Leslie It Vogel, and Philip R. Muskin
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               171
      Panic Disorder                               171
      Agoraphobia                                  173
      Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)      174
      Specific Phobia                              176
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder                176
      Posttraumatic Stress Disorder                178
      Acute Stress Disorder                        181
      Generalized Anxiety Disorder                 182
      Anxiety Disorder Due to a General Medical    184
      Condition
      Substance-induced Anxiety Disorder           185
        Stimulant Intoxication                     185
        Alcohol Withdrawal                         186
        Withdrawal from Other Central Nervous      186
        System Depressants
        Withdrawal from Opioids                    187
        Paradoxic Reactions                        187
    The Interview                                  188
    Differential Diagnosis                         190
      Generalized Anxiety Disorder                 190
      Panic Disorder                               191
      Social Phobia                                191
      Specific Phobia                              191
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder                191
      Posttraumatic Stress Disorder                192
      Acute Stress Disorder                        192
    Medical Evaluation                             194
    Etiological Issues across Anxiety Disorders    195
      Neurobiological Concepts                     195
        Genetic Predisposition and Interactions    195
        with Environment
        Neurotransmitters                          196
        The Hypothalamic鳳ituitary泡drenal Axis    198
        Neurocircuitry, Attention, and Learning    198
      Psychosocial Concepts                        199
        Cognitive Behavioral Approach              199
        Psychoanalytic Approach                    200
    Treatment                                      200
      General Principles of Pharmacotherapy        200
      General Principles of Psychotherapy          201
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 201
        Psychodynamic Psychotherapy                203
      Etiology and Treatment of Specific           203
      Anxiety Disorders
        Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia             203
        Etiology                                   203
        Pharmacotherapy                            204
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 204
        Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)    204
        Etiology                                   204
        Pharmacotherapy                            205
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 205
        Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder              205
        Etiology                                   205
        Pharmacotherapy                            205
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 206
        Posttraumatic Stress Disorder              206
        Etiology                                   206
        Pharmacotherapy                            206
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 206
        Generalized Anxiety Disorder               207
        Etiology                                   207
        Pharmacotherapy                            207
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 207
        Specific Phobias                           207
        Etiology                                   207
        Pharmacotherapy                            207
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 207
        Substance-induced Anxiety Disorder         208
        Etiology                                   208
7. ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS             210
  Benjamin R. Bryan and Frances R. Levin
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               210
      Substance Use Disorders                      213
        Substance Abuse                            213
        Substance Dependence                       213
      Substance-Induced Disorders                  214
        Alcohol and Other Sedatives                215
        Nicotine                                   220
        Cannabis                                   220
        Stimulants                                 222
        Opioids                                    223
        Hallucinogens                              223
        Anabolic-androgenic Steroids               226
        Inhalants                                  227
      Course of Illness                            227
        Alcohol                                    227
        Recreational Drugs                         228
    The Interview                                  230
      Substance Use History                        230
      Screening Tests                              230
      Family, Social, and Legal Histories          232
      History Timeline                             232
      Assessment of Patient Reliability            233
      Patient Engagement                           234
      Special Considerations in Children and       235
      Adolescents
      Special Considerations in the Elderly        236
    Differential Diagnosis                         239
    Medical Evaluation                             240
      Laboratory Tests for Alcohol-related         242
      Disorders
      Laboratory Tests for Drug-related            243
      Disorders
    Etiology                                       245
      Neurobiological Factors                      245
        Genetic Factors                            245
        Neurotransmitter Factors                   246
        Neuroendocrine Factors                     246
      Psychological Factors                        246
      Social Factors                               247
    Treatment                                      248
      Recovery from Substance-related Disorders    248
      Therapeutic Settings                         250
        Inpatient and Residential Chemical         251
        Dependence Programs
        Outpatient Programs                        253
        Residential Therapeutic Community          253
        Programs
      Psychotherapy                                254
      Pharmacotherapy                              255
        Dependence on Alcohol and Other            255
        Sedatives
        Detoxification from Alcohol and Other      256
        Sedatives
        Opioid Dependence                          256
        Opioid Detoxification                      259
        Cocaine Dependence                         259
        Cannabis Dependence                        259
        Nicotine Dependence                        259
8. PERSONALITY DISORDERS                           264
  Eve Caligor, Frank Yeomans, and Ze'ev Levin
    Personality and Personality Pathology          265
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               266
      Cluster A: The Odd or Eccentric Cluster      268
        Paranoid Personality Disorder              268
        Schizoid Personality Disorder              268
        Schizotypal Personality Disorder           269
      Cluster B: The Dramatic, Emotional, or       270
      Erratic Cluster
        Borderline Personality Disorder            271
        Histrionic Personality Disorder            273
        Narcissistic Personality Disorder          274
        Antisocial Personality Disorder            275
      Cluster C: The Anxious or Fearful Cluster    276
        Avoidant Personality Disorder              277
        Dependent Personality Disorder             277
        Obsessive-Compulsive Personality           279
        Disorder
    Course of Illness                              279
      Odd or Eccentric Cluster                     280
      Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Cluster      281
        Histrionic Personality Disorder            281
        Borderline Personality Disorder            281
        Narcissistic Personality Disorder          282
        Antisocial Personality Disorder            282
      Anxious or Fearful Cluster                   282
        Avoidant Personality Disorder              282
        Dependent Personality Disorder             283
        Obsessive-Compulsive Personality           283
        Disorder
    The Interview                                  283
    Differential Diagnosis                         292
        Distinguishing between Personality         292
        Pathology and an Axis I Disorder
        Distinguishing between Personality         292
        Pathology and Physiologic
        Manifestations of a General Medical
        Condition
        Evaluating the Patient with Axis I         293
        Pathology and Comorbid Personality
        Pathology
        Evaluating the Patient for Comorbid        293
        Personality Disorders
    Medical Evaluation                             293
    Etiology                                       294
      Neurobiology                                 294
      Environment                                  295
    Treatment                                      295
      Psychodynamic Psychotherapy                  296
      Cognitive Behavior Therapy                   296
      Supportive Psychotherapy                     297
      Group Psychotherapy                          297
      Pharmacotherapy                              297
9. EATING DISORDERS                                300
  Michael J. Devlin and Joanna E. Steinglass
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               300
      Core Shared Features                         300
      Anorexia Nervosa                             301
      Bulimia Nervosa                              302
      Binge-eating Disorder                        306
      Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified      307
    Epidemiology and Course of Illness             307
      Incidence and Prevalence                     308
      Age of Onset                                 308
      Morbidity and Mortality                      309
      Long-term Course of Illness                  310
        Anorexia Nervosa                           310
        Bulimia Nervosa                            312
        Binge-eating Disorder                      313
    The Interview                                  314
      Anorexia Nervosa                             314
      Bulimia Nervosa                              315
    Differential Diagnosis                         317
      Anorexia Nervosa                             317
      Bulimia Nervosa                              317
    Medical Evaluation                             318
    Etiology                                       319
      Biological Theories                          320
        Genetic Factors                            320
        Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides        321
        Neuroendocrine Factors                     321
        Gastrointestinal Factors                   322
      Psychosocial Theories                        322
        Cognitive Model                            322
        Behavioral Model                           322
        Interpersonal Perspective                  323
        Cultural Factors                           323
        Anorexia Nervosa                           323
        Bulimia Nervosa                            325
    Treatment                                      325
      Anorexia Nervosa                             325
        Behavior Treatment                         325
        Psychotherapy                              326
        Pharmacotherapy                            327
      Bulimia Nervosa                              327
        Psychotherapy                              327
        Pharmacotherapy                            328
      Binge-eating Disorder                        329
10. SOMATOFORM AND FACTITIOUS DISORDERS            331
  Kelli Jane K. Harding and Steven E. Hyler
    Diagnostic and Clinical Features               331
      Somatoform Disorders                         331
        Somatic/Sensory Subtype                    333
        Dissociative Subtype                       336
        Obsessional/Cognitive Subtype              337
      Factitious Disorder                          339
        Factitious Disorder with Predominantly     341
        Physical Signs and Symptoms
        Factitious Disorder with Predominantly     342
        Psychological Signs and Symptoms
        Variants of Factitious Disorder            344
    Course of Illness                              344
      Somatoform Disorders                         344
      Factious Disorders                           347
    The Interview                                  347
      Somatoform Disorders                         347
      Factitious Disorder                          348
    Differential Diagnosis                         350
      Somatoform Disorders                         350
      Factitious Disorder                          351
    Medical Evaluation                             351
      Somatoform Disorders                         351
      Factitious Disorders                         352
    Etiology                                       352
      Somatoform Disorders                         352
        Somatization and Pain Disorders            352
        Conversion Disorder                        353
        Hypochondriasis                            354
        Body Dysmorphic Disorder                   354
      Factitious Disorder                          354
    Treatment                                      355
      Somatoform Disorders                         355
        Somatization and Pain Disorders            355
        Conversion Disorder                        356
        Hypochondriasis                            356
        Body Dysmorphic Disorder                   357
      Factitious Disorder                          357
11. SUICIDE AND VIOLENCE                           360
  Cheryl A. Chessick and Robert E. Feinstein
    Clinical Features                              360
      Suicide                                      360
      Violence                                     361
    The Interview                                  362
      Safety                                       362
        Calm Phase                                 363
        Psychomotor Agitation Phase                363
        Verbal Aggressive Phase                    363
        Physical Aggressive Phase                  365
      Obtaining the History                        366
        Risk Assessment                            367
        Current Suicidal and Violent Ideation      367
        Past Suicidal and Violent Behavior         369
        Treatment History                          370
        Psychosocial History                       371
        Family History                             371
      Physician Reactions                          373
        Suicidal Patients                          373
        Violent Patients                           374
    Differential Diagnosis                         374
      Suicide                                      374
      Violence                                     375
    Medical Evaluation                             376
    Etiology                                       376
      Neurobiological Factors                      376
      Psychosocial Factors                         376
        Family Influences                          376
        Societal Influences                        377
    Treatment                                      377
      Motivation for Treatment                     377
      Therapeutic Settings                         377
        Outpatient Treatment                       377
        Hospitalization                            378
      Pharmacotherapy                              380
        Antidepressants                            381
        Mood-stabilizing Agents                    382
        Antipsychotics                             382
        Benzodiazepines                            382
      Electroconvulsive Therapy                    382
      Psychotherapy                                383
        Cognitive Behavior Therapy                 383
        Psychodynamic Approaches                   384
        Family Therapy                             384
      Chronic Suicidality and Violence             385
    Legal Issues                                   385
      Commitment                                   385
      Confidentialty                               385
      The Duty to Warn                             386
12. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING MEDICAL        388
CONDITIONS
  Lucy A. Epstein and Eve Caligor
    Psychological Reactions to Physical Illness    388
      General Psychological Responses to           391
      Physical Illness
        Regression                                 391
        Clinical Features                          391
        Interview and Management                   392
        Denial                                     393
        Clinical Features                          393
        Interview and Management                   394
        Anxiety                                    394
        Clinical Features                          394
        Interview and Management                   395
        Depression                                 396
        Clinical Features                          396
        Interview and Management                   397
        Anger and Agitation                        398
        Clinical Features                          398
        Interview and Management                   400
      Individual Personality Traits in Physical    400
      Illness
        Dependent Personality Traits               401
        Clinical Features                          401
        Interview and Management                   401
        Controlled Personality Traits              401
        Clinical Features                          401
        Interview and Management                   402
        Self-dramatizing Personality Traits        402
        Clinical Features                          402
        Interview and Management                   403
        Long-suffering Personality Traits          403
        Clinical Features                          403
        Interview and Management                   403
        Suspicious Personality Traits              404
        Clinical Features                          404
        Interview and Management                   404
        Superior Personality Traits                404
        Clinical Features                          404
        Interview and Management                   404
        Aloof Personality Traits                   405
        Clinical Features                          405
        Interview and Management                   405
    Psychological Factors Affecting Adherence      405
      Clinical Features                            405
      Interview and Management                     406
    Psychosocial Stress Affecting a Medical        407
    Condition
      Clinical Features                            407
      Interview                                    408
      Management                                   410
    Psychological Aspects of Chronic Illness       411
      Clinical Features                            411
      Interview                                    414
      Management                                   415
    Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain          416
      Clinical Features                            416
      Interview                                    418
      Management                                   420
13. CHILD, ADOLESCENT, AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT       424
  Jonathan A. Slater, Katharine A Stratigos,
  and Janis L. Cutler
    Normal and Abnormal Life Development           424
      Approach to the Study of Development         424
      Patterns of Development                      424
      Effects of Stress and Trauma on              426
      Development
      Psychodynamic Theory                         426
    Infancy: Birth to 12 Months of Age             427
      Developmental Progression                    427
        Affect Regulation                          427
        Attachment                                 427
        Object Permanence                          429
        Stranger Anxiety                           432
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                433
        Physical Illness and Caretaking            433
        Relationships
        Psychopathology                            434
        Developmental Disorders                    434
        Parental Psychopathology                   434
    The Toddler: One to Three Years of Age         434
      Developmental Progression                    434
        Emergence of Autonomy                      435
        Ambivalence                                435
        The Acquisition of Symbolic Thought        436
        Internal Representations                   436
        Establishment of Gender Identity           437
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                438
        Transient Symptoms                         438
        Psychopathology                            439
    The Preschool Child: Three to Six Years of     439
    Age
      Developmental Progression                    439
        The Autonomous Self and the Emergence      439
        of Morality
        Imaginative Play                           440
        The Evolution of Magical Thinking          441
        Sexuality                                  442
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                443
    The School-age Child: Six to Eleven Years      443
    of Age
      Developmental Progression                    443
        Acquiring Competence                       444
        Evolving Coping Styles and Morality        444
        Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic           445
        Gender Differentiation                     445
        Sexual Curiosity and Modesty               445
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                447
        Psychopathology                            447
    Adolescence                                    448
      Developmental Progression                    448
        Achieving Independence Through Groups      448
        Consolidation of Identity and Growing      448
        Emotional Maturity
        Acquisition of Abstract Thought            449
        Gender-related Issues                      450
        Sexuality                                  451
        Risk-taking                                451
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                453
        Psychopathology                            453
    Adulthood                                      453
      Developmental Progression                    453
        Gratification in Work and Love             453
        Emotional Maturity                         455
        Cognitive Awareness                        455
        Sexual Function and Dysfunction            456
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                456
        Psychopathology                            457
    Old Age                                        457
      Developmental Progression                    457
        Changing Relationships                     457
        Gradual Decline                            459
        Sexuality in the Elderly                   459
      Developmental Vulnerabilities                459
        Psychopathology                            460
14. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY                462
  Daniel T. Chrzanowski, Elisabeth B. Guthrie,
  Matthew B. Perkins, and Moira A. Rynn
    Psychiatric Assessment of Children and         462
    Adolescents
      The Interview                                462
        Children                                   464
        Interview with Parents                     464
        Interview with Child                       466
        Parents and Child                          468
        Adolescents                                468
      Mental Status Examination                    469
      Rating Scales                                470
      Medical Evaluation                           470
        Baseline Laboratory Testing                471
        Special Laboratory Testing                 472
      Psychological Assessment                     473
    Anxiety Disorders                              473
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             473
        Separation Anxiety Disorder                475
        Generalized Anxiety Disorder               476
        Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder              476
        Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)    476
        Panic Disorder                             476
        Specific Phobia                            477
        Posttraumatic Stress Disorder              477
      Differential Diagnosis                       477
      Treatment and Prognosis                      477
    Somatoform Disorders                           478
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             478
        Pain Disorder                              478
        Conversion Disorder                        478
        Body Dysmorphic Disorder                   478
        Hypochondriasis                            478
        Somatization Disorder                      478
        Undifferentiated Somatofonn Disorder       479
      Differential Diagnosis                       479
      Etiology                                     479
      Treatment and Prognosis                      480
    Mood Disorders                                 480
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             480
        Major Depressive Disorder                  480
        Bipolar Disorder                           481
      Differential Diagnosis                       481
      Treatment and Prognosis                      482
        Depressive Disorders                       482
        Bipolar Disorder                           482
    Disruptive Behavior Disorders                  483
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             483
        Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder   483
        Oppositional Defiant Disorder              485
        Conduct Disorder                           486
      Differential Diagnosis                       487
      Etiology                                     487
        Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder   487
        Oppositional Defiant Disorder              488
        Conduct Disorder                           488
      Treatment and Prognosis                      488
        Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder   488
        Oppositional Defiant Disorder              488
        Conduct Disorder                           489
    Learning, Motor Skills, and Communication      489
    Disorders
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             489
        Reading Disorder                           490
        Disorder of Written Expression             490
        Mathematics Disorder                       490
        Developmental Coordination Disorder        490
        Communication Disorders                    491
        Expressive Language Disorder               491
        Mixed Receptive-expressive Language        491
        Disorder
        Phonological Disorder                      491
        Stuttering                                 491
      Etiology and Treatment                       492
        Reading Disorder                           492
        Disorder of Written Expression             492
        Mathematics Disorder                       493
        Developmental Coordination Disorder        493
        Communication Disorders                    493
        Stuttering                                 493
    Mental Retardation                             493
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             493
      Differential Diagnosis                       494
      Etiology                                     494
      Treatment and Prognosis                      494
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders              496
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             496
        Autistic Disorder                          496
        Asperger Disorder                          497
        Rett Disorder                              497
        Childhood Disintegrative Disorder          498
      Differential Diagnosis                       498
      Etiology                                     498
      Treatment and Prognosis                      499
    Schizophrenia                                  499
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             499
      Differential Diagnosis                       500
      Etiology                                     501
      Treatment and Prognosis                      501
    Tic Disorders                                  502
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             502
        Transient Tic Disorder                     502
        Chronic Tic Disorder                       502
        Tourette Disorder                          502
      Differential Diagnosis                       502
      Etiology                                     503
      Treatment and Prognosis                      503
    Eating and Feeding Disorders of Childhood      503
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             504
        Pica                                       504
        Rumination Disorder                        504
        Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early       504
        Childhood
      Differential Diagnosis                       504
        Pica                                       504
        Rumination Disorder                        505
        Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early       505
        Childhood
      Etiology, Treatment, and Prognosis           505
        Pica                                       505
        Rumination Disorder                        505
        Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early       506
        Childhood
    Elimination Disorders                          506
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             506
        Enuresis                                   506
        Encopresis                                 507
      Differential Diagnosis                       507
        Enuresis                                   507
        Encopresis                                 507
      Etiology, Treatment, and Prognosis           507
        Enuresis                                   507
        Encopresis                                 508
    Personality Disorders                          509
      Diagnostic and Clinical Features             509
      Differential Diagnosis                       509
      Etiology, Treatment, and Prognosis           509
    Psychosocial Treatments                        509
      Working with Parents                         509
      Cognitive Behavior Therapy                   510
      Interpersonal Therapy                        511
      Psychodynamic Psychotherapy                  512
    Pharmacotherapy                                512
      Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors      512
      Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake            513
      Inhibitors
      Bupropion                                    513
      Tricyclic Antidepressants                    513
      Stimulants                                   513
      Antipsychotics                               514
      Mood Stabilizers                             514
      Benzodiazepines                              514
15. PSYCHOTHERAPY                                  517
  David D. Olds and Fredric N. Busch
    The Therapeutic Process                        517
      Beginning Phase                              517
      Middle Phase                                 523
      End Phase                                    523
    Basic Characteristics of Psychotherapies       524
      Transference                                 524
      Countertransference                          524
      Corrective Emotional Experience              524
      Emotional Intensity                          525
      Resistance                                   525
    Psychoanalytic Psychotherapies                 525
      Brief Dynamic Psychotherapy                  526
        Indications and Selection Criteria         526
        Therapeutic Process                        531
      Psychoanalysis                               532
        Indications and Selection Criteria         532
        Therapeutic Process                        534
        Free Association                           534
        Therapeutic Neutrally                      534
        Clarification                              534
        Interpretation                             535
        Defense Analysis                           535
        Resistance                                 535
        Dream Analysis                             536
        Transference Neurosis                      536
        Modifications                              536
        Working Through                            537
        Intersubjectivity                          537
      Long-term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy       537
        Indications and Selection Criteria         538
        Therapeutic Process                        538
      Transference Focused Psychotherapy           541
        Indications and Selection Criteria         542
        Therapeutic Process                        542
      Panic-focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy    544
        Therapeutic Process                        544
    Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies                 545
      Behavior Therapy                             545
        Indications and Selection Criteria         547
        Therapeutic Process                        548
      Cognitive Behavior Therapy                   549
        Indications and Selection Criteria         549
        Therapeutic Process                        549
      Dialectical Behavior Therapy                 551
        Indications and Selection Criteria         553
        Therapeutic Process                        553
        Group Therapy                              553
        Individual Therapy                         553
        Telephone Consultation                     554
        Consultation Team                          555
    The Multiple-person Therapies                  555
      Interpersonal Psychotherapy                  555
        Indications and Selection Criteria         555
        Therapeutic Process                        555
      Family Therapy                               557
        Systems Approach                           557
        Psychodynamic Approach                     558
      Group Therapy                                561
    Supportive Psychotherapies                     563
      Crisis Intervention                          564
        Indications and Selection Criteria         564
        Therapeutic Process                        564
      Medical Illness                              564
      Ego Deficits                                 565
        Indications and Selection Criteria         565
        Therapeutic Process                        566
16. PHARMACOTHERAPY AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE          568
THERAPY
  Jonathan W. Stewart, L. Mark Russakoff, and
  Jessica Ann Stewart
    General Principles                             568
    Antipsychotic Agents                           571
      Indications and Contraindications            574
      Pretreatment Evaluation                      576
      Initiating Treatment                         576
      Combination Therapy                          577
      Dosing                                       577
      Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics        577
      Side Effects                                 578
        Weight Effects                             578
        Extrapyramidal Symptoms                    578
        Tardive Dyskinesia                         579
        Sedation                                   580
        Anticholinergic Effects                    580
        Hypotension                                580
        Sexual Effects                             580
        Hepatic Effects                            581
        Dermatologic Effects                       581
        Hematological Effects                      581
        Seizure Effects                            581
        Ophthalmologic Effects                     582
        Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome             582
      Drug Interactions                            582
      Medication Choice                            582
      Antiparkinsonian Agents                      583
    Antidepressant Agents                          583
      Indications                                  584
      Dosing Strategies                            585
      Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors      586
        Dosing                                     586
        Side Effects                               587
        Drug Interactions                          588
      Tricyclic Antidepressants                    589
        Dosing                                     589
        Side Effects                               591
      Other Newer Antidepressants                  591
        Dosing and Side Effects                    593
      Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors                 594
        Dosing                                     595
        Side Effects                               595
        Tyramine-free Diet                         596
        Drug Interactions                          596
      Assessment of Treatment Response             596
        Placebo Effects                            597
        Switch Strategies                          597
        Augmentation Strategies                    597
      Discontinuing an Antidepressant              598
    Mood Stabilizers                               598
      Lithium                                      598
        Pretreatment Evaluation                    598
        Dosing                                     599
        Side Effects                               600
      Anticonvulsants                              600
        Pretreatment Evaluation                    601
        Dosing                                     601
        Side Effects                               601
    Anxiolytic Medications and Hypnotic Agents     602
      Benzodiazepines                              602
        Pretreatment Evaluation                    602
        Drug Selection                             606
        Dosing                                     606
        Side Effects                               606
      Non-benzodiazepine Anxiolytics and           608
      Hypnotics
    Substance Abuse Agents                         608
    Electroconvulsive Therapy                      610
      Indications and Contraindications            610
      Pretreatment Evaluation                      611
      Treatment                                    611
      Side Effects                                 611
INDEX                                              613